Hybridization in chemistry is the idea of mixing two atomic orbitals with the same energy levels to give a new type of orbital called HYBRID ORBITAL.
During the process of hybridization, the atomic orbitals of similar energy are mixed together such as the mixing of two ‘s’ orbitals or two ‘p’ orbital’s or mixing of an ‘s’ orbital with a ‘p’ orbital or ‘s’ orbital with a ‘d’ orbital.
Studying the rules of hybridization is very important before diving fully into the subject of hybridization. These rules are essential to the understanding of the concepts of the topic.
Ads: How to create a PayPal account that send and receive funds in Nigeria… Read more
Rules of hybridization
1-bond to another atom or lone pair = s (not really hybridized)
2-bonds to another atom or lone pairs = sp
3-bonds to another atom or lone pairs = sp²
4-bonds to another atom or lone pairs = sp³
5-bonds to another atom or lone pairs = sp³d
6-bonds to another atom or lone pairs = sp³d²
Types of Hybridization
Sp Hybridization, sp² Hybridization, sp³ Hybridization, sp³d hybridization and sp³d² hybridization.
1. Sp Hybridization: Here, one s orbital and one p orbital hybridize to form two sp , each consisting of 50% s character and 50% p character.
2. Sp² Hybridization: This is when one s and two p orbitals of the same shell of an atom mix to form 3 equivalent orbital.
3. Sp³ Hybridization: Each Sp³ hybrid orbital has 25% s character and 75% p character. It is the mixture of one ‘s’ orbital and three ‘p’ orbital of the same shell.
Ads: How to gain more followers on Instagram… Read more
4. Sp³d Hybridization: Three orbitals; ‘s’ ‘p’ and ‘d’ mixed in the ratio 1:3:1 respectively to form hybridized orbital of the same energy. This form trigonal bipyramidal symmetry.
Ads: Do you need a site like this? You want to start a blog or need any kind of website? Chat a professional website designer up today and get a discount on every job you want to do. Chat on WhatsApp
5. Sp³d² Hybridization: This type of Hybridization has 1s, 3p and 2d orbitals, that undergo intermixing to form 6 identical sp3d2 hybrid orbitals.
How to determine Hybridization
- Look at the atom.
- Count the number of atoms connected to it (atoms – not bonds!)
- Count the number of lone pairs attached to it.
- Add these two numbers together.
(If it’s 4, your atom is sp3, If it’s 3, your atom is sp2, If it’s 2, your atom is sp. )
Ads: Advertise With Us… Read more
People Are Also Reading
- How To Use Natural Home Products To lighten Your Skin
- How to Care for Your Human Hair
- How to Serve God Faithfully
- How to Greet in a Debate Competition
- How To Lighten Skin Naturally
- How To Move Words In Microsoft Words
- How To Learn English Language
- How To Begin An Essay
- How To Select Multiple Cells In Excel
- How To Fight Poverty In Your Community
Let’s send our tutorials and posts directly to your email inbox, you will only hear from us once in a week. Drop your email below